Castro-Stephens Reaction

Coupling between stoichiometric copper-acetylene and an aryl halide. Also compare this reaction with the Sonogashira reaction (catalytic palladium and copper) and the Ullman reaction (catalytic copper catalyst).



The Substitution of Aryl Iodides with Cuprous Acetylides. A Synthesis of Tolanes and Heterocyclics
R. D. Stephens and C. E. Castro, J. Org. Chem.; 1963; 28(12) pp 3313 – 3315